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Ethiopia: New Spate of Abusive Surveillance

Spyware Industry Needs Regulation

Ethiopian authorities have carried out a renewed campaign of malware attacks, abusing commercial spyware to monitor government critics abroad, Human Rights Watch said today. The government should immediately cease digital attacks on activists and independent voices, while spyware companies should be far more closely regulated.

On December 6, 2017, independent researchers at the Toronto-based research center Citizen Lab published a technical analysis showing the renewed government malware campaign aimed at Ethiopian activists and political opponents. These attacks follow a long, documented history of similar government efforts to monitor critics, inside and outside of Ethiopia.

“The Ethiopian government has doubled down on its efforts to spy on its critics, no matter where they are in the world,” said Cynthia Wong, senior internet researcher at Human Rights Watch. “These attacks threaten freedom of expression and the privacy and the digital security of the people targeted.”

Based on analysis of attacks starting in 2016, the Citizen Lab report identified several targets who received phishing emails, including several ethnic Oromo activists and scholars, one of Citizen Lab’s own research fellows, and Jawar Mohammed, an Oromo activist and executive director of the US-based Oromia Media Network (OMN). During the period of the infections described in the report, there were widespread protests in Ethiopia, beginning with Oromo protests over development plans around the capital, Addis Ababa, which culminated in a 10-month state of emergency that was lifted in August 2017. Security forces responded to those largely peaceful protests with lethal force, killing over one thousand protesters and detaining tens of thousands more since November 2015.

The government has gone to various lengths to restrict OMN – an independent media network that covers current events in Oromia, Ethiopia – and other diaspora media outlets. Given Ethiopia’s stranglehold on independent media and access to information, diaspora media outlets provide an important source of information that is independent from government, albeit often heavily politicized.

OMN played a key role in disseminating information during protests in 2015 and 2016. The government has routinely jammed satellite television programs, arrested informants, pressured satellite companies to drop OMN, arrested people who show OMN in their places of businesses, and charged OMN under the antiterrorism law in October 2016.

Identified targets in the most recent round of malware attacks were commentators on Ethiopian affairs, who received emails that were tailored to their interests. The emails invited the targets to download and install a software update, which contained malware, to view the content. The phishing attacks, if successful, would have infected their personal computers with spyware. The Citizen Lab report also uncovered dozens of successfully infected devices belonging to other targets in 20 countries, including in the US, UK, Eritrea, Canada, and Germany.

Citizen Lab’s analysis of the attacks and logfiles places the operator inside Ethiopia and links the software to Cyberbit, an Israel-based cybersecurity company. The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of Elbit Systems, an Israel-based defense company. The analysis suggests that the spyware in use is Cyberbit’s PC Surveillance System (PSS), which the company may have recently rebranded as PC 360.

Cyberbit’s marketing materials describes PSS as a “comprehensive solution for monitoring and extracting information from remote [personal computers].” Once a computer is infected, the spyware’s operator would gain access to virtually any information available on the device, including files, browsing history, passwords, emails, and what the target types into the computer. The spyware can also take screen shots and activate a computer’s microphone and camera for live surveillance. The marketing materials indicate that PSS was created for law enforcement and intelligence agencies to “reduce crime” and “prevent terrorism.”

Citizen Lab’s report also identifies potential Cyberbit product demonstrations to possible clients in several other countries, including Kazakhstan, Nigeria, the Philippines, Rwanda, Serbia, Thailand, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, and Zambia.

This is the third known spyware vendor that the Ethiopian government has engaged since 2013. Human Rights Watch and Citizen Lab previously wrote about the government’s use of malware sold by UK/Germany-based Gamma International (reorganized as FinFisher) and Italy-based Hacking Team to target journalists and activists in the Ethiopian diaspora. Authorities continued to misuse Hacking Team’s product through at least 2015, when a widely covered breach of the company’s corporate data confirmed its business in the country.

The government also has a history of abusing other surveillance technologies, which has facilitated a range of human rights violations. Inside the country, Ethiopian authorities have frequently used mobile surveillance to target independent voices. Human Rights Watch has documented how security agencies would play intercepted phone calls during abusive interrogations in an effort to intimidate critics and political opponents into silence.

Spyware companies often market their products to government agencies tasked with fighting crime or preventing terrorism. However, the Ethiopian government has a documented history of abusing its counterterrorism laws to target journalistsbloggers, protesters, and government critics. At least 85 journalists have fled into exile since 2010 as a result of the government’s ongoing crackdown on independent media. Ethiopia’s laws lack meaningful protections for the right to privacy, and the country’s broad security and law enforcement powers are not adequately regulated to prevent arbitrary, unlawful, or disproportionate surveillance.

Human Rights Watch wrote to Cyberbit to request comment on Citizen Lab’s findings, the company’s approach to assessing the human rights impact of spyware sales to government customers, and what steps the company would take if it uncovered government abuses linked to their product. In a December 5 response, the company stated that it is “a vendor and it does not operate any of its products. Cyberbit Solutions customers are the sole operators of the products at their sole responsibility and they are obliged to do so according to all applicable laws and regulations” in their jurisdictions.

The company also stated that it offers its products only to government authorities, and any sales of “lawful interception and intelligence products are subject to export control due to their nature and they were sold only after obtaining all relevant authorizations,” including specific approval of a designated government end user.

Finally, the company stated that while it cannot confirm or deny any specific transaction or client, the company appreciates the concerns raised and is “addressing it subject to the legal and contractual confidentiality obligations Cyberbit Solutions is bound by.”

Cyberbit should immediately investigate misuse of its products by Ethiopian authorities, publicly disclose its findings, and end any plans for future sales and any ongoing support it may be providing, Human Rights Watch said.

Despite some progress in recent years, the sale of commercial spyware remains poorly regulated at the national and international level, as Ethiopia’s repeated purchase of such tools demonstrates. Since 2014, the European Union and 41 member countries to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies have begun to introduce regulations to control the sale of systems like those sold by Cyberbit. However, even where they exist, national implementation of such export controls has been uneven. Some governments do not adequately consider the risk to human rights when evaluating a company’s application to export spyware to repressive regimes.

While Israel does not formally participate in the Wassenaar Arrangement, it nonetheless incorporates the Wassenaar control lists into its national regulations. Exports of spyware systems from Israel’s thriving cybersecurity industry to foreign governments for security purposes require approval from Israel’s Defense Export Control Agency. Though the agency consults with the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, it is unclear whether the government requires an examination of the end-user’s or destination country’s human rights record and whether the sale might facilitate violations of rights.

According to 2016 media reports, the agency had previously approved the sale of similar spyware by the Israeli technology company NSO Group to the United Arab Emirates (UAE), despite its record of surveillance abuses. The UAE later used this technology to target a prominent human rights activist, Ahmed Mansoor. In October, the export agency announced that it will loosen some export restrictions, though how the changes will apply to spyware systems remains unclear.

The latest Ethiopian malware campaign raises significant questions about whether Israel’s export controls are adequate to prevent human rights abuses linked to spyware sales, Human Rights Watch said. Israel and other governments should ensure that such sales are reviewed on a case-by-case basis, and evaluate the end-use and human rights record of the end user.

“It is troubling if Israeli authorities allowed the sale of Cyberbit’s spyware to Ethiopian security agencies, given their established record of using malware to violate rights,” Wong said. “Spyware should be kept far from known human rights abusers.”


Posted by: Kumilachew Gebremeskel Ambo

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Hiber Presents Godi Bayikedagn & Berhanu Weldesenbet, South West Ethiopia people union (SWEPU)

ደምኢህሕ SWEPU,
የደቡብ ምዕራብ ኢትዮጵያ ህዝቦች ሕብረት ህዝብን ሳያደራጁና ለለውጥ ሳያሳትፉ ሥርዓቱን መለወጥ እንደማይቻል ገለጸ
ከሂብር ራዲዮ ጋር ባደረጉት ቃለ መጠይቅ
አቶ ጎዲ ብይከዳኝና
አቶ ብርሃኑ ወ ሰንበት

Posted By: Kumilachew Gebremeskel Ambo

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ክፍል አንድ:- የደቡብ ምዕራብ ኢትዮጵያ ህዝቦች ሕብረት ህዝብን ሳያደራጁና ለለውጥ ሳያሳትፉ ሥርዓቱን መለወጥ እንደማይቻል ገለጸ::

ደምኢህሕ SWEPU ክፍል አንድ:- የደቡብ ምዕራብ ኢትዮጵያ ህዝቦች ሕብረት ህዝብን ሳያደራጁና ለለውጥ ሳያሳትፉ ሥርዓቱን መለወጥ እንደማይቻል ገለጸ::

ደምኢህሕ SWEPU
ክፍል አንድ
የደቡብ ምዕራብ ኢትዮጵያ ህዝቦች ሕብረት ህዝብን ሳያደራጁና ለለውጥ ሳያሳትፉ ሥርዓቱን መለወጥ እንደማይቻል ገለጸ
ከሂብር ራዲዮ ጋር ባደረጉት ቃለ መጠይቅ
አቶ ጎዲ ብይከዳኝና
አቶ ብርሃኑ ወ ሰንበት


Posted by;Kumilachew Gebremeskel Ambo

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የደቡብ ምዕራብ ኢትዮጵያ ህዝቦች ሕብረት ህዝብን ሳያደራጁና ለለውጥ ሳያሳትፉ ሥርዓቱን መለወጥ እንደማይቻል ገለጸ

የደቡብ ምዕራብ ኢትዮጵያ ህዝቦች ሕብረት ህዝብን ሳያደራጁና ለለውጥ ሳያሳትፉ ሥርዓቱን መለወጥ እንደማይቻል ገለጸ
ከሂብር ራዲዮ ጋር ባደረጉት ቃለ መጠይቅ

Posted by: Kumilachew Gebremeskel Ambo

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የሸካ ህዝብ አሁንም በወታደራዊ አገዛዝ ስር ነዉ።

የሸካ አመራሮች የህወሓትን ህጋዊነትና አገዛዝ ጥሩነት ለማሣየት የኮሚዉንስት(ደረግ)ሥርዓት ሠይጣን እንደሆነ አድርገው ለህዝቡ ይናገራሉ።ይኼ 26 ዓመት ሙሉ ለኢትዮጵያ ህዝብ ስደሠኮር የቆየ የህወሓት ፕሮፖጋንዳ አካል ነዉ።የሸካ አመራሮችና ካድሬዎቻቸዉ ፍጹም ሊወዳደሩ የማይችሉ ነገሮችን በማወዳደር የህወሓትን አገዛዝ ህጋዊነት ለማሳየት እየሞከሩ ነዉ።ደርግን ለመዉቀስ የሚጠቀሙት በ1978/79 አካባቢ በደርግ የተፈጸመው ከህዝብ ፍላጎት ዉጭ የሆነ የሠፈራ ፕሮግራም በማንሳት እና ከዛ ጋር ተያይዞ የተነሳ ተቃውሞ ነዉ።የደርግ ሥርዓት ለሸካ ህዝብ ጥሩ አይደለም በሚለው እስማማለሁ።በሚያሳዝን ሁኔታ ይህ ህዝባዊ ያልሆነ የሠፈራ ፕሮግራም የተቃወሙ ግለሠቦችን ጎድቷቸዋል።ይህንን ህዝባዊ ያልሆነ በሠፈራ ፕሮግራም ምክንያት የተነሳውን ህዝባዊ አመፅ ከደገፉት መሀል አንዳንዶች ተገድለዋል ።ነገር ግን እንደ ህወሓት ደርግ ህዝቡን ቤት ለቤት እያደነ አልገደለም።ህወሓት ቤት ለቤት እያደነ ይህንን የዋህ ህዝብ ገድሎ በንብረታቸው ላይ እሳት ጨምሯል ። ይኼ በቅርቡ በ1994 በሸካ(ቴፒ) የተከሰተው ነዉ።የህወሓት ወታደሮች ሰዉን ቤት ለቤት እየዞሩ እያደኑ አንድ በአንድ ከገደሏቸው በሁዋላ በንብረቶቻቸዉ ላይ እሳት ጨምሯል ።ከዛ የተገደሉት ሰዎች በጅምላ መቃብር ዉስጥ ነዉ የተቀበሩት ።ይህ የዘር ጭፍጨፋ ቤልጅየም (ብራሰርስ) በሚገኘው የአውሮፓ ህብረት ዋና መስሪያ ቤት ተመዝግቦ ተቀምጧል ።በዚህ በዘር ጭፍጨፋ ምክንያት የአዉሮፓ ህብረት በኢትዮጵያ ላይ የ380 ሚሊዬን ዩሮ ማዕቀብ ጥሎ ነበር።ዳሩ ግን መሠሪዉ መለስ ዜናዊ ዲራማዉን እንደገና አቀነባብሮ ጽፎ ፈንዱን አስለቀቀ እንጂ።ደርግ የሸካ ህዝብ ባህልና እሴት ከግንዛቤ ያላስገባ የሠፈራ ፕሮግራም በማካሄዱ ህዝቡን ይቅርታ ጠይቆ ነበር።ደርግ የሸካ ህዝብን መብት ለማስከበር ከደርግ ወታደሮች ጋር ለመታገል ጫካ የገቡትን የእንደራደር ጥያቄ አቅርቦ ወዴ ሠላማዊ ኑሯቸዉ እንዲመለሱ አድርጎ ነበር።እስቲ አስቡት ይኼ አመፅ በህወሓት የሥልጣን ዘመን ተፈጽሞ ቢሆን።ምን ያክል የሸካ ህዝብ እንደሚጨፈጨፍ እና ንብረታቸዉ በእሳት እንደሚጋይ መገመት አይከብድም ።ይኼ ለሸካ አመራሮች እና ካድሬዎቻቸዉ ይግባቸዉ።
ባለፉት 26 ዓመታት በዚህ ሥርዓት የተፈጸመውን ግፍ እስቲ አስቡት?
በደኖ ላይ ምን ነበር የተፈጠረው ?
በአዋሳ (ሎቄ) ላይ ምን ነበር የተፈጠረው ?
እዚሁ ቴፒ ላይ ምን ነበር የተፈጠረው ?
በመላው ብርሀኑ ሀይለሚካኤል ቤተሠቦች ላይ ሥርዓቱን ስለተቃወመ ብቻ የደረሰው ምንድነዉ?የ65 ዓመቷ ወ/ሮ ማሚቴን ማን ገደለ?የብርሀኑ አጎት አቶ እንዳሻዉ ዳምጠዉ እና ወንድምየዉ የ12 ዓመቱ ህፃን ወርቁ ሀይለሚክያኤልን ማን ገደለዉ?የተቀዋሚ ቤተሠብ በመሆናቸው ብቻ ሁሉም የቤተሰብ አባላ ተገደሉ ።የዞን አስተዳደር ጽ/ቤት ሀላፊ የነበረውን ታከለን ማን ገደለው ?ታምሩ ፋጎን አፍነው ወስደው ማነዉ የገደለው ?በዞኑ ዋና ከተማ ማሻ ላይ በቅዳሜ ገበያ መሀል ቦምብ ያፈነዳዉ ማን ነዉ?እስቲ እራሳችሁን ጠይቁ ።ይኼን ሁሉ ግዲያ በሸካ ህዝብ ላይ የፈጸመው ማን ነዉ?ይኼ ሁሉ ግድያ የተፈጸመው በሸበጥ ብቻ በመጡ በህወሓት ወታደሮች አይደለምን ?ይኼ በደርዘን የሚቆጠር የሰዉ ህይወት የቀጠፈውን ዘግናኝ ፍንዳታ የተካሄደው የሸካ ህዝብ በካፋ ዞን ስር በመተዳደሩ የተፈጸመ ተደርጎ ነዉ ለፖለቲካ ፍጆታ የዋለው ።ይኼ ክፉ ወንጀል የተቀነባበረው በቢተዉ በላይ ስሆን ፈፃሚዎች ደግሞ የህወሓት ካድሬዎች ናቸዉ። በአጼ ሀይለስላሴ ዘመን የሸካ ህዝብ የፖለቲካ ጨቋኞችን ፣ወንጀለኞችንና በስነ ምግባር ብልሹ የሆኑ የመንግሥት ተቀጣሪዎችን ያባርር ነበር።ለምሳሌ አበበ ጎበኛ የፖለቲካ ጸሐፊና ጨቋኝ የሆነ የአጼ ሥርዓት ባለሥልጣን የነበረ ከሞቻ አዉራጃ የአሁኑ ሸካ ዞን ማሻ ከተማ እንዲባረር ተደርጓል ።ጨቋኝ በሚባሉ በአጼዎች ሥርዓትም ሆነ በደርግ ሥርዓት የሸካ ህዝብ ባህሉ እና ድንበሩ ያለማንም ጣልቃ ገብነት ተከብሮ ነበር።የሸካ ህዝብ እሴቶችና ባህል በህወሓት ኢንቨስትመንት አገዛዝ በግድ ተወስዷል ።ቢሊዬነሮቹ እነ አላሙድን እና ሀይሌ ገብረስላሴ ያሉት ለም የሆነ የሸካ ህዝብ መሬት እንደፈለጉ እየበዘበዙ ነዉ።ገዳዮቹ የህወሓት አጋዚ ወታደሮች ከ2007 ጀምሮ በሸካ ደን ዉስጥ የእነኝህ የህወሓት ታማኝ የሆኑ ግለሠቦችን ኢንቨስትመንት ለመጠበቅ ሠፍረዋል ።እኔ የደርግ ሥርዓት ደጋፊ አይደለሁም ።ነገር ግን ዛሬ ላይ ሁኜ ደርግን በሁሉም በሸካ ዉስጥ በተፈጸመው ችግር ተጠያቂ አላደርግም ።የደርግ መንግሥት የጎሬ-ማሻ-ቴፒ መንገድ ደረጃዉን በጠበቀ መልኩ ገንብቷል ።ይህ ዛሬ ላይ ለሸካ ህዝብ ትልቅ ነገር ነዉ።በአሁን ሰዓት ይኼ መንገድ ምንድነዉ የሚመስለዉ?ይኼ በገዳዩ ህወሓት የተገነባ መንገድ ነዉን?ደርግ ገዳይ ሊሆን ይችላል።ነገር ግን እንደ ህወሓት ሸካ ህዝብ ላይ ዘግናኝ ጭፍጨፋ አላካኼደም።የትራስፖርት አገልግሎት ጎሬ-ማሻ-ቴፒ መስመር ስለተቋረጠ ወዴ ክልልም ሆነ ሀገሪቱ ማዕከል መድረስ አስቸጋሪ ሁኗል።አሁን ሙሉ ለሙሉ ከአገልግሎት ዉጭ የሆነው መንገድ የተገነባው ይኼ በህወሓት እንደሠይጣን የተሣለዉ በደርግ ሥርዓት ነዉ።ህወሓትና ገረዶቻቸዉ በሀገሪቱ ለተፈጸመው ችግር በሙሉ ደርግን ተጠያቂ ያደርጋሉ።ደርግ መጥፎ መንግሥት ሊሆን ይችላል።ነገር ግን እስቲ ለአመካከታችን ምክንያታዊ እንሁን።ደርግ አብዛኛዎቹን አንደኛ ደረጃ ትምህርት ቤቶችን በሞቻ አዉራጃ/ሸካ ዞን ዉስጥ ከፍቷል።ነገር ግን ዛሬ በህወሓት ሥርዓት እነኝህ በደርግ ሥርዓት የተከፈቱ ት/ቤቶች እንዲዘጉ ተደርጓል ።ለዚህ ደግሞ የበጀት እጥረትን እንደምክንያት ይሠጣሉ።ነገር ግን በትግራይ ክልል በበጀት እጥረት ምክንያት የተዘጋ አንድ ትምህርት ቤት አለ?የሚል ጥያቄ የሸካ አመራሮች እራሳቸዉን ሊጠይቁ ይገባል።ነገር ግን በትግራይ ክልል በሚገርም ፍጥነት ትምህርት ቤቶችና ሌሎች መሠረተ ልማቶች እየተስፋፉ ነዉ።እስቲ ጥቂት ጥያቄ በመጠየቅ የዛሬዉን መልዕክቴን ላጠቃልል።
እስከ መች ነዉ የሸካ ህዝብ ስቃይ የሚቀጥለው ?
ምን ያክል የሸካ ህዝብ ሀብት መዉደም አለበት እነኝህ መጣጮችን ህዝቡ በቃችሁ ለማለት?
እስከ መቼ ነዉ መሪዎች የሸካ ህዝብ እምባን ችላ የሚሉት?

Source : Ayele Angelo Ago
ከእንግሊዘኛ ወዴ አማርኛ ትርጉም : Mankira Coffee

Posted by: Kumilachew Gebremeskel Ambo

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በደቡብ ምዕራብ ኢትዮጵያ በካፋ ዞን ስለምገኙ የተፈጥሮ ሀብቶች በከፊል የተዘጋጀ ዶክመንተሪ

በደቡብ ምዕራብ ኢትዮጵያ በካፋ ዞን ስለምገኙ የተፈጥሮ ሀብቶች በከፊል የተዘጋጀ ዶክመንተሪ

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The Sheka people are still under siege:

The Sheka leaders keep telling their people that the communist regime was the evilest of all for Sheka/Mocha people to legitimatize and sanctify the TPLF leadership. This is part and parcel of TPLF propaganda that has been preached to Ethiopian people in the past 26 years. The Sheka leaders and cadres try to justify the legitimacy of TPLF by comparing incomparable events. They blame Derg regime by refereeing to the civil disobedience that took place in 1986 against the unpopular villagization program. I do agree that Derg regime was not good government to Sheka/Mocha people. They smashed the opposition against the villagization program with cruelty. Some people who supported the civil disobedient were killed while confronting the Derg army. But Derg army did not go house to house to hunt people like TPLF does. TPLF hunted and killed innocent people and put fire on their properties. This was the case in Sheka, Tepi in 2001 when TPLF army hunted people from house to house and killed them one by one and set fire on their properties and buried their bodies in a mass grave. The massacre was documented at the headquarters of the European Union, for which around 380 million Euro was then sanctioned until Melese Zenawi wrote, edited and performed a drama and was able to get the fund released. Derg regretted about neglecting the value and cultural aspect of the Sheka people during the villagization program and apologized for that. Derg negotiated with those who flew into forest to resist the army and asked to them return to normal life. Just compare what could happen if it were TPLF leadership that was in power when the civil disobedience mentioned above happened. Could you guess how many Sheka people would be massacred and how many properties would be put on fire.
This is for Sheka leaders and cadres.
Just think for a while about the past 26 years.
What happened in Bedeno?
What happened in Awassa, Locke?
What happened in Gambella?
What happened in Tepi?
What happened to a whole family of Berhau Haile Michael/who then rebelled against the regime? Who killed Mrs. Mamite Wodo 65 years old, mother, Mr. Endeshaw Dima, Uncle, Worku Haile Michael 12 years old and brother? The whole family were killed for being relatives to rebelled man. Who killed Takele, the then secretary of Zonal administration? Who hanged and killed Tamiru Faro? Who did the explosion on an open Saturday market in Masha town, the Zonal capital? Just ask yourselves as who did all these atrocious killings? Was it not true that all the killings and the explosion was done by the TPLF fighters who came with their shebet/Slipper? The catastrophic explosion that killed dozens of people was a politically motivated crime done to justify amalgamation of Sheka Zone under Keffa Zone to security concern. This atrocious crime was engineered by Bitaw Belay and executed by local TPLF cadres.
Sheka/the former Mocha was used to exile political opponents, criminals, and ill-discipled public employees during the Imperial regime. For example, Abbe Gobegna, critical writer and political opponent to Imperial regime was exiled in the former Mocha Awraja/ the current Sheka zone, Masha town. Despite all sorts of suppressions, be it under Imperial regime or under Derg, the Sheka people maintained their cultural heritage within their boundary with no or with little interference. The values and cultural practices of Sheka people that has been maintained for generation was taken away forcefully by TPLF investment empire.
Billionaires such as Mohammed Al Amoudi, Haile Gebreselassie and others are grabbing the richest land of Sheka people.
TPLF killing squad Agazi has fortified in Sheka forest since 2015 to safeguard the property of Al Amoudi and other loyal TPLF investors.
I am not fun of Derg regime. I do not also blame Derg regime as sole factor for every problem that Sheka is in now. The Derg government connected Gore-Masha-Tepi with standardized gravel road, which was very instrumental Sheka people. What does the situation of this road look like these days? This was the road constructed by a regime as TPLF levels” the slaughter”. Derg could be slaughter, but is not the slaughtering worse with TPLF leaders in Sheka?
Transport access is severely hampered from Gore- Masha-Tepi, in effect access to the national regional administrative Capital are restricted. The road now under absolute collapse was constructed by the Communist regime. TPLF and its enslaved cadres blamed Derg for every problem that we in the country.
Derg was a bad government, but let us be reasonable in our judgements. Derg established many elementary schools in then Mocha Awraja/Sheka Zone; which you TPLF leaders closed-down most of them. You reason to close the schools is budget problem. I think it, it is the time for Sheka leaders to ask themselves these questions: Has ever a single school closed because of budgetary problem in Tigray regional state? Rather, schools and other infrastructures expanded in a titanic scale in Tigray.
Let me conclude my message by asking: –
How long should the suffering of Sheka people continue?
How much of Sheka resources should be depleted until someone say no to the suckers?
How long should the leaders ignore the outcry of Sheka people?


Posted by: Kumilachew Gebremeskel Ambo